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Very strong drafts can be observed in the occupied region of the first design. The f low from the inlets is very poorly distributed through space, and the f low around the occupants is dominated by small-scale erratic vortices.
The second design, however, reveals no strong drafts near occupants and a relatively large convection current renewing air near the occupied area.
The simulation revealed large temperature differences throughout the occupied region, with s ome occupants getting exposed to very cold air.
The thermal efficiency is also poor, as evidenced by relatively warm air. In the second configuration, all occupants are within the temperature comfort region, and the air temperature shows greater stratification.
On the other hand, n o discomfort can be observed for any occupant location, and o ccupants are well within the comfort limits.
The simulation results reveal significant flaws in the first design, including strong drafts near the occupants, large differences in temperature across occupants, with many occupants seated outside of the thermal comfort zone.
The area directly underneath the inlets is particularly thermally uncomfortable. The second design clearly shows a significant improvement; the air patterns are optimized and no drafts or large temperature gradients can be seen near the occupants.
Overall, the above post-processing images reveal vast differences between the two designs, with the second one being clearly superior in terms of thermal comfort.
With a few simple modifications to the original ventilation system design, the overall thermal comfort was improved dramatically.
The whole simulation took only a few hours of manual and computational time, but it allowed us to identify the flaws and test potential design improvements.
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Since , Standard 55 has been rewritten with a renewed focus on application of the standard by practitioners and use of clear, enforceable language.
Requirements are now clearly stated and calculation procedures appear sequentially. All informative background information has been moved to informative appendices.
Documentation requirements to show that a design complies with Standard 55 are contained in Section 6, and a sample compliance form is provided in Appendix K.
Both of these sections are clarified and streamlined for use by owners and third-party rating systems.
For occupant-controlled naturally conditioned spaces, the measured results shall be check with the comfort zone established by adaptive model.
To evaluate the thermal comfort over a period of time in a mechanically conditioned space, the exceedance hours are the sum of all the hours when the absolute value of PMV is greater than 0.
For an occupant-controlled naturally conditioned space, the exceedance hours are the sum of hours when the operative temperature falls outside of the lower and upper boundaries of the comfort zone.
Metabolic rate is the rate of transformation of chemical energy into heat and mechanical work by metabolic activities of an individual.
It is defined as per unit of skin surface area which equals to This is the energy produced from a unit skin surface area of an average person seated at rest.
These values are valid for an average adult with surface skin area of 1. The standard reminds the users that they should use their own judgment to match the activities being considered to the comparable activities in the table.
Except sedentary activities, metabolic rate for all other activities is likely to have range of variation. When the duration of an activity is equal or less than one hour, one can use a time-weighted metabolic rate.
As metabolic rates increase over 1. Clothing insulation refers to the heat transfer of the entire body, which includes the uncovered parts, such as hands and heads.
There is a variety of means to determine the insulation provided by clothing. Accurate data from the measurement using thermal manikins is acceptable.
When such measurement is not feasible, this standard provides four methods to determine the clothing insulation.
It is also specified that the methods provided by this standard are no longer valid when the clothing insulation exceed 1.
And it is also not valid when occupants wear clothing that is highly impermeable to moisture transport. First, one can estimate the clothing insulation from the table provided in section five.
If the clothing ensemble in question reasonably matches the clothing ensemble in the table, the indicated value can be used. The second method is to add or subtract individual garment clo value to achieve the clothing ensemble in question.
This table can be used together with the previous one, so that one can add or subtract the clothing ensemble from the clo value of each garment.
The third method is to add all the clo value of each garment to match the clothing ensemble in question. This method is based on the concept that when occupants choose their clothing according to their environment, the outdoor environment is more influential than the indoor one.
There is a figure in the section five of the standard which predicts the representative clothing insulation of the occupants as a function of the average outdoor air temperature at am.
There is a function to determine the representative clothing insulation at each segment. One can also take into account the posture of the occupants.
So far, all the clothing insulation value can be used when the occupant is standing. When occupant is sitting, one has to realize the insulation effect of the chair, and the decrease of insulation due to compression of the air in the clothing.
If the occupant is moving, it also affects the insulation value of clothing. In general, body motion decreases the clothing insulation by pumping air through clothing.
Thus, it only provides an approximation of the clothing insulation value of a moving person. This approximation is an equation that relates the clothing insulation with the metabolic rate.
And this equation is only valid when the metabolic rate is between 1. Considering that a sleeping person or one in reclining posture will be provided with sufficient insulation with the bedding material, and he or she is also free to adjust, it is impossible to determine the clothing insulation effect for these occupants unless they are immobile.
In the first form, different individuals wear different clothing due to factors that are not related to thermal conditions, and the second form is opposite.
For the first, it is not correct to use the average clothing insulation value to determine the desired thermal conditions for all occupants.
It was revised in , , , , , and In the standard was updated with more extensive information on measurement protocols and an expanded definitions section.Ich bin mit der Speicherung meiner Daten zu Marketingzwecken einverstanden. Gira Schuko-Doppelst. Jetzt anfordern! Beschriftungsschilder neutral und mit Symbolen sind beiliegend.