Review of: Platipus

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Platipus

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Platypus, small amphibious Australian mammal noted for its odd combination of primitive features and special adaptations, especially the flat, almost comical duck-beak-like bill. Adding to the animal’s distinctive appearance are conspicuous white patches of fur under the eyes. Platypus bills give them a “sixth sense.” A platypus’s bill has thousands of cells that give it a sort of sixth sense, allowing them to detect the electric fields generated by all living things. Platypus hydration systems represent a whole new way of looking at hydration. At first glance, these Platypus water bottles and Platypus reservoirs appear unconventional; on closer examination you'll discover there's a lot to like. Platypus hydration bottles and reservoirs are so flexible they fit into tight spaces in any pack. The Platipus® Percussion Driven Earth Anchor (PDEA®) is a unique, modern and versatile device that can be rapidly deployed in most displaceable ground conditions. It offers a lightweight corrosion resistant anchor that can be driven from ground level using conventional portable equipment. The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania. The platypus is the sole living representative of its family (Ornithorhynchidae) and genus (Ornithorhynchus), though a number of related species appear in the fossil record. JavaScript scheint in Ihrem Browser deaktiviert zu sein. Ankerseil mit 2-Wege Spannsystem inkl. Ihre Bestellung wird unmittelbar nach dem Zahlungseingang für den Versand vorbereitet. Sie enthalten keine der Zusatzkosten für Installation oder Inbetriebnahme.

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The senses of sight, smell , and hearing are essentially shut down while the platypus is submerged to feed, but it possesses a unique electromechanical system of electroreceptors and touch receptors that allow it to navigate perfectly underwater.

Similar electroreceptors are also present in echidnas , which, together with the platypus, make up the mammalian order Monotremata , a unique group with an exceptionally ancient history.

Platypuses are generally solitary, spending their lives either feeding along the bottoms of rivers , streams, and lakes or resting in burrows dug into the banks.

They are extremely energetic, feeding almost continuously while in the water, shoveling through streambed debris with their flat bills as they hunt for larval insects and freshwater crustaceans a favourite food.

The platypus uses its sophisticated electromechanical system to detect minute electrical signals given off by the muscles of its prey.

After feeding, it retires to its burrow, the entrance of which is large enough to admit only the platypus and serves to squeeze excess moisture from the fur.

The platypus is found in terrain ranging from the high country of Tasmania and the Australian Alps to lowland areas close to the sea.

Although it has on occasion been seen swimming in salt water , the platypus must feed in fresh water, where its electrical navigation system is operative.

The platypus is present in all eastern Australian states in both eastward- and westward-flowing river systems, but it is absent from far northern Queensland and, unlike its relatives, the echidnas , does not appear to have colonized the island of New Guinea.

Generally most active around dawn and dusk crepuscular , platypuses can also be active during the day depending on the season, cloud cover, stream productivity, and even individual preference.

The platypus's electroreception is the most sensitive of any monotreme. The electroreceptors are located in rostrocaudal rows in the skin of the bill, while mechanoreceptors which detect touch are uniformly distributed across the bill.

The electrosensory area of the cerebral cortex is contained within the tactile somatosensory area, and some cortical cells receive input from both electroreceptors and mechanoreceptors, suggesting a close association between the tactile and electric senses.

Both electroreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the bill dominate the somatotopic map of the platypus brain, in the same way human hands dominate the Penfield homunculus map.

The platypus can determine the direction of an electric source, perhaps by comparing differences in signal strength across the sheet of electroreceptors.

This would explain the characteristic side-to-side motion of the animal's head while hunting. The cortical convergence of electrosensory and tactile inputs suggests a mechanism that determines the distance of prey that, when they move, emit both electrical signals and mechanical pressure pulses.

The platypus uses the difference between arrival times of the two signals to sense distance. Feeding by neither sight nor smell, [38] the platypus closes its eyes, ears, and nose each time it dives.

Monotreme electrolocation probably evolved in order to allow the animals to forage in murky waters, and may be tied to their tooth loss.

In recent studies it has been suggested that the eyes of the platypus are more similar to those of Pacific hagfish or Northern Hemisphere lampreys than to those of most tetrapods.

The eyes also contain double cones , which most mammals do not have. Although the platypus's eyes are small and not used under water, several features indicate that vision played an important role in its ancestors.

The corneal surface and the adjacent surface of the lens is flat while the posterior surface of the lens is steeply curved, similar to the eyes of other aquatic mammals such as otters and sea-lions.

A temporal ear side concentration of retinal ganglion cells , important for binocular vision, indicates a role in predation , while the accompanying visual acuity is insufficient for such activities.

Furthermore, this limited acuity is matched by a low cortical magnification , a small lateral geniculate nucleus and a large optic tectum , suggesting that the visual midbrain plays a more important role than the visual cortex , as in some rodents.

These features suggest that the platypus has adapted to an aquatic and nocturnal lifestyle, developing its electrosensory system at the cost of its visual system; an evolutionary process paralleled by the small number of electroreceptors in the short-beaked echidna , which dwells in dry environments, whilst the long-beaked echidna , which lives in moist environments, is intermediate between the other two monotremes.

In , research in biofluorescence revealed the platypus is one of the monotremes that glow when exposed to black light in a bluish-green colour.

The platypus is semiaquatic, inhabiting small streams and rivers over an extensive range from the cold highlands of Tasmania and the Australian Alps to the tropical rainforests of coastal Queensland as far north as the base of the Cape York Peninsula.

Inland, its distribution is not well known. It was considered extinct on the South Australian mainland, with the last sighting recorded at Renmark in , [45] until some years after John Wamsley had created Warrawong Sanctuary see below in the s, setting a platypus breeding program there, and it had subsequently closed.

However, with the SA Department for Environment and Water recovery teams working hard to reinstate their habitat, there had been a number of sightings reported by April The platypus is no longer found in the main part of the Murray-Darling Basin , possibly due to the declining water quality brought about by extensive land clearing and irrigation schemes.

In captivity, platypuses have survived to 17 years of age, and wild specimens have been recaptured when 11 years old. Mortality rates for adults in the wild appear to be low.

Low platypus numbers in northern Australia are possibly due to predation by crocodiles. The platypus is an excellent swimmer and spends much of its time in the water foraging for food.

It has a very characteristic swimming style and no external ears. Dives normally last around 30 seconds, but can last longer, although few exceed the estimated aerobic limit of 40 seconds.

Recovery at the surface between dives commonly takes from 10 to 20 seconds. When not in the water, the platypus retires to a short, straight resting burrow of oval cross-section, nearly always in the riverbank not far above water level, and often hidden under a protective tangle of roots.

The average sleep time of a platypus is said to be as long as 14 hours per day, possibly because it eats crustaceans , which provide a high level of calories.

The platypus is a carnivore : it feeds on annelid worms, insect larvae , freshwater shrimp , and freshwater yabby crayfish that it digs out of the riverbed with its snout or catches while swimming.

It uses cheek-pouches to carry prey to the surface, where it is eaten. When the platypus was first encountered by European naturalists , they were divided over whether the female lays eggs.

She does, finally confirmed by William Hay Caldwell 's team in The species exhibits a single breeding season ; mating occurs between June and October, with some local variation taking place between different populations across its range.

The female softens the ground in the burrow with dead, folded, wet leaves, and she fills the nest at the end of the tunnel with fallen leaves and reeds for bedding material.

This material is dragged to the nest by tucking it underneath her curled tail. The female platypus has a pair of ovaries , but only the left one is functional.

The incubation period is divided into three phases. The yolk is absorbed by the developing young. Most mammal zygotes go through holoblastic cleavage, meaning that, following fertilisation, the ovum is split due to cell divisions into multiple, divisible daughter cells.

This is in comparison to the more ancestral process of meroblastic cleavage, present in monotremes like the platypus and in non-mammals like reptiles and birds.

In meroblastic cleavage, the ovum does not split completely. This causes the cells at the edge of the yolk to be cytoplasmically continuous with the egg's cytoplasm.

This allows the yolk, which contains the embryo, to exchange waste and nutrients with the cytoplasm. The newly hatched young are vulnerable, blind, and hairless, and are fed by the mother's milk.

Although possessing mammary glands , the platypus lacks teats. Instead, milk is released through pores in the skin. The milk pools in grooves on her abdomen, allowing the young to lap it up.

During incubation and weaning, the mother initially leaves the burrow only for short periods, to forage. When doing so, she creates a number of thin soil plugs along the length of the burrow, possibly to protect the young from predators; pushing past these on her return forces water from her fur and allows the burrow to remain dry.

The oldest discovered fossil of the modern platypus dates back to about , years ago, during the Quaternary period. The extinct monotremes Teinolophos and Steropodon were once thought to be closely related to the modern platypus, [74] but are now considered more basal taxa.

The molar teeth were initially thought to be tribosphenic , which would have supported a variation of Gregory's theory, but later research has suggested, while they have three cusps, they evolved under a separate process.

Unlike the modern platypus and echidnas , Teinolophos lacked a beak. Judging by the tooth, the animal measured 1.

Because of the early divergence from the therian mammals and the low numbers of extant monotreme species, the platypus is a frequent subject of research in evolutionary biology.

In , researchers at the Australian National University discovered the platypus has ten sex chromosomes , compared with two XY in most other mammals.

These ten chromosomes form five unique pairs of XY in males and XX in females, i. Except for its loss from the state of South Australia, the platypus occupies the same general distribution as it did prior to European settlement of Australia.

However, local changes and fragmentation of distribution due to human modification of its habitat are documented.

These Australian mammals are bottom feeders. They scoop up insects and larvae, shellfish, and worms in their bill along with bits of gravel and mud from the bottom.

All this material is stored in cheek pouches and, at the surface, mashed for consumption. On land, platypuses move a bit more awkwardly.

However, the webbing on their feet retracts to expose individual nails and allow the creatures to run. Ia merupakan wakil tunggal bagi keluarga Ornithorhynchidae dan genus Ornithorhynchus , walaupun fossil keluarga berkait telah dijumpai, sebahagian mereka juga tergolong dalam genus Ornithorhynchus.

Nama saintifik Ornithorhynchus secara harafiahnya bererti 'hidung burung' dalam bahasa Yunani , dan anatinus bererti 'itik'. Nama biasanya bererti 'kaki leper' dan asalnya diberikan sebagai nama genus Linnaean , tetapi ia kemudiannya diketahui telahpun diberikan kepada Kumbang Ambrosia pengorek kayu.

Fisiologi Platipus adalah unik. Sehingga mana ciri ini merupakan ciri monotremes, berbanding adaptasi pada sebahagian kecil spesies yang masih hidup kepada keadaan gentir, tidak diketahui dengan jelas.

Badan dan ekor lebar, leper Platipus diselitupi dengan bulu perang. Ia mempunyai kaki bercantum dan paruh yang besar, bergetah yang lebih menyerupai itik berbanding haiwan mamalia lain.

Ini mendorong ia dikenali sebagai " Platipus berparuh itik " - " Duck-billed Platypus ". Saiz jauh berbeza antara kurang dari satu kilogram dua [[Pound Pound avoirdupois or international pound pounds]] dan melebihi dua kilogram kurang sedikit dari empat setengah paun ; dengan panjang badan antara 30 hingga 40 cm hampir 1 ' sehingga 1'3 " , dan panjang ekor antara 10 hingga 15 cm 4" to 6" bagi jantan dan 8 hingga 13 cm 3" hingga 5" bagi betina.

Jantan sekitar dua per tiga ganda besar berbanding betina. Terdapat variasi jelas dalam purata saiz dalam satu kawasan ke kawasan yang lain, agak pelik pola ini kelihatannya tidak menurut sebarang hukum cuaca tertentu.

Anak Platipus moden mempunyai tribosphenik 'tiga bonjol - three-cusped' gigi molar , yang merupakan salah satu ciri utama mamalia; haiwan dewasa tiada bergigi.

Rahang Platipus dibina agak berlainan dari mamalia lain, dan otot pembuka rahang adalah berbeza. Sebagaimana mamalia sebenar, tulang kecil yang mengalirkan bunyi kepada telinga dalam disekalikan dengan tengkorak , tidak hanya terletak pada rahang sebagaimana cynodont dan synapsid pre-mamalia lain.

Bagaimanapun, bukaan luar telinga masih terletak pada dasar rahang. Platipus mempunyai tulang tambahan pada bahu "shoulder girdle", termasuk interklavikle , yang tidak terdapat pada mamalia lain.

Ia juga mempunyai lengguk seperti reptile , dengan kaki yang terletak di sisi dan bukannya di bawah badan. Platipus jantan mempunyai taji beracun pada pergelangan kaki, yang digunakan untuk bertempur sengit merebut kawasan dan peluang mengawan.

Bisa ini tidak membawa maut pada manusia dewasa tetapi menhasilkan sakit berbisa dan keradangan yang mampu berlarutan selama beberapa bulan.

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Platipus

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